Incidents Types

This incidents types list is a synthesis of syntheses of several national overall practice incidents databases. Some sources have been lost, however the synthesis remains. All sources were real, yet sorting the categories and especially the solution proposals are subjective (i.e. the 2012 CIVL Safety Officer). The records run already over several decades, but this list is of course open. So feel free to send any commentary, amendment or new case to the Safety Officer.  Lastly, this list is being corrected in native English and will be updated as soon as possible. Fly safe.




lack of oxygen flying down, oxygen set
dehydration drinking, camelback
hypoglycemia eating
cold weather checking, gloves, clothing
sun sunglasses, sunscreen, clothing, drinking
need to pee learning technique
white dots on retina good sunglasses
visual flaw (midair path) red tape, FLARM
airsick training
scubadiving less than 12 hours before flight renounce
bad physical shape renounce
lack of sleeping renounce
tiredness renounce
alcohol renounce
cannabis renounce
wounds on ground poor fitness
personal worries renounce
feeling "beside" renounce
lack of experience training
start of season learning
carelessness training
speeding up delay
nervous delay
anger delay
excess of confidence learning
"testosterone" delay
distraction (camcorder...) delay
forgetting to hook in / legloops OZ method: aircraft = glider + harness, closing legloops 1st
run stop in tandem launch poor preparation
student without guidance pedagogy flaw
panic pedagogy flaw
fear (adrenalin) training
risky behaviour with weather, aerology getting conscious (forgiving only 99% of times)
unavailability, overload comfort, tuned equipment
unavailability, overload simplifying, training
impossible or difficult direct connection all harnesses with front opening: 2015, 2020?
forgetting to hook in direct connection, automatic carabiner backup, main riser easy to clip in
forgetting legloops / waist strap linked legloops / chest strap, upper zipper closing from bottom?
forgetting chest strap external chest strap
impossible standing up position proper rail length, legloops length tuning
impossible lying position riser / footplate connection cord present & tuned, centered rail
forgotten hook in 1/ let go, 2/ U-turn to crash onto hill
zipper failure zipper mounted on velcro sandwich
tilt cord break removable tilt cord, proper cam / friction blocking
impossible wanted parachute opening handle on pod, reached by both hands or 2 parachutes
unwanted parachute opening faired & fitted pod handle
backplate break reinforced backplate connected to safety frame
main riser break main riser properly sewn & connected to safety frame, shock absorber?
main suspension rope break main riser sliding on strong metal rod
separation upon backplate break main riser connected to freefall tested safety frame
legs injuries suit ballast limits to lightest pilots
spine injuries airbag
face wounds by glasses glasses without sharp rim
loosing helmet tested geometry, strong chin strap
"neck breaker" minimal fairing behind helmet
brain rotational wounds
MIPS helmet technology

jamming cord on launch outside attachments by cow hitches or quick links, no hook nor (radio) wire
difficult parachute opening pilot chute on pod
pilot chute break freefall tested pilot chute
separation on parachute opening parachute bridle connected to harness safety frame
parachute burst in terminal velocity opening freefall tested sail, shock absorber?
injuries upon landing under parachute size suited to gross weight
parachute pod opened before throwing protected closing loop, lines stowed on pod
separation on drogue chute opening, torsion forces drogue chute connected to harness, possibly on axis
interference drogue chute / keel short bridle
unavoidable crash upon landing use glider to absorb energy, warp around one downtube
drowning upon water landing exit to trailing edge, easy harness opening, cutaway?
forgetting safety pin with A frame closing in top area A frame closing in base bar area
fatigue failure of A frame top bolt right size, regular change, silent block?
double weakness of A frame top long bolt through keel short bolt in craddle under keel
torn cast downtube fittings upon downtube bending / break milled fittings
cable folding control bar, unconnection of sleeve & cable or fatigue break articulated control bar
base bar break without backup base bar internal wire (safety frame)
forgetting swan neck safety pin / haulback break in flight no swan neck haulback, backup (strap?)
folded leading edge inserts mylar inserts withheld in top of leading edge pockets
rectangular section spars break by complex forces wound carbon spars
keel break without backup keel internal rope (safety frame)?
forgetting / loosing nose cone by velcro weakness nose cone with fixed upper link, lower link by front wires?
forgetting to close sprogs or keel zippers anti-forgetting zippers?
hang loop dingle dangle or kingpost ready for easy harness clip in: 2015, 2020?
jamming VG cord VG cord stowing bungee on downtube bottom
side wires fatigue break 2,5 mm side wires, eye swage terminals?
corrosion hidden by painting anodized aluminium tubes
tiring, loss of interest glider tuning: symmetry then trim VG loose, symmetry then pitch VG tight
lock out close to ground on towing roll stable behaviour for beginners
weak push out on landing A-frame top behind main riser
rigids side wires disconnection in flight pin secured control wires
rigids spoilers / flaps disconnection in flight pin secured spoilers / flaps
rigids stabilizer lost in flight pin secured stabilizer on reinforced craddle
rigids D tubes delamination control during preflight check
protruding nail, cord jamming on launch surfacing
pitch change on slope change starting run not more than 1 m behind slope change (except cliff)
low pitch on cart, tug launching first keel support allowing to set pitch angle around 20 ° (rigids 10 °)
high pitch on cart, stall ensure right pitch angle (base bar ~ flight position)
tumble out of cart proper cart & bar cradles design, pilot pushing while rolling & holding cart hoses
dragging cart on launch base bar cradles for all bars
reversed velcro AoA limiter replace velcro limiter by glider / harness dual bridle
weak link break on launch properly tuned weak links, regularly replaced
face injuries on line break simple, light & compact release
"rocket" launch under winch tow, unrecoverable stall if line break restricted tension below 50 m, glider / harness dual bridle
jamming tow line no instrument in central part of base bar, sheathed line
impossible release on lock out high tension suited release (no 3 nor 2 cord loops system)
lock out close to ground under towing harness pitch & VG 1/3 tuning, glider / harness dual bridle & fin for beginners
aircraft collision with winch tow line winch tow activity on airmaps
low pitch, glider going in front of pilot setting pitch angle around 20 °
high pitch, early & slow glider launch, stall progressive acceleration
loss of control on cart specific reversed control
poor technique (launch, control, approach, landing) simplifying, training
tumble hang glider sprogs tuning, suiting VG to turbulence
drogue chute opening in front of base bar / jamming on base bar wheel or skid
throwing in slow flight and directly (not holding on base bar)

spin close to ground wings level (more with drogue chute), VG loose / flaps on for final
loss of control close to ground transition to downtubes before final
loss of control close to ground holding low part of downtubes on final
poor landing "listening" for trim
obstacle on landing cutting fences / trees
overcrowded launch low stress generating setup / launching system (priority set up)
overcrowded start gate adapting period between launch opening and 1st start to conditions, ex. 1 to 2 hours
midair collision
constant scan of the whole space around, FLARM
high altitude oxygen sets
lost pilots mobile phone on, live tracking
dangerous task line / final glide flight corridor over landable & aerologically safe zones
landing safety keeping daily turn direction (adapting line position on field)?
mental training: visualise problems & emergency procedures
aware of consequences (aviation's hardest is the ground)
aware of own (changing) limits: adrenalin, visual flaws; not cheating with oneself
fit & awake (distraction, excitement...)
ability to renounce: no dishonor but maturity
using logic rather than procedures learned by heart
simplifying procedures to lower work load
anticipating worsening situation (act instead of react), having an alternate
not relying on luck
safety scale (green: fly, yellow: watch ground, red: land)
humility, incorporate mistake's occurrence (airline pilots make 1 / hour)
accepting & assuming mistakes, listening to criticism even from less experienced persons
stepping in if detecting danger or incompetence
declaring incidents to increase common experience
putting stress on little mistakes: 1st step towards accident


lack of oxygen
need to pee
white dots on retina
visual flaw (midair path)
scubadiving less than 12 hours before flight
bad physical shape
lack of sleeping
wounds on ground

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